Arab and Ethiopian women in Israel earn less than half of the national average salary and are the most disadvantaged groups in the country’s job market, according to a survey of minorities in the labor market released on Monday, February 18. Overall, women’s salaries are 59% of men’s salaries in Israel, the survey found.
The annual Employment Diversity Index, put out by the Labor Ministry, Tel Aviv University, and the Equal Opportunities Commission at the Prime Minister’s Office, offered a bleak picture of employment opportunities for minorities in Israel, especially minority women.
The index, now in its third year, analyzed the employment of Arabs, Ethiopians, ultra-Orthodox and workers over the age of 45, and measured gender differences within those groups. The survey measured representation of minority groups in 20 private-sector industries representing about one million workers, and compared wages for minority workers to other workers in the same fields.
In general, Arab women and Ethiopian-Israeli, and women over the age of 45 without an academic degree, earn less than 50 percent of the average salary. Education helped minority groups, but did not land them equal footing, the survey found. Arab and Ethiopian women with higher education faced more discriminatory barriers than other women. Women with a degree under the age of 30 earn 20% to 40% less than they earn men with the same academic degree.